Immunoglobulins Notes PDF
Antibodies or immunoglobulins are a class of disease-fighting proteins produced by B cells found in the lymphatic system or bone marrow. Antibodies are produced to bind a specific antigen that has stimulated the immune system. Their selectivity and tunability to recognize and bind an almost infinite range of large- and small molecule substrates is what makes antibodies so important to the immune system.
They are virtually composed of four protein chains that are interconnected by ‘disulfide bonds. It has been observed that the surface of the antibody essentially bears a highly specific marking (or ‘lock’) that would promptly recognize the particular foreign particle (or ‘key’) with which it readily undergoes complexation or binding. It has now been well established that different antibodies are actually generated in each individual person for their characteristic and highly specific interaction with antigens.
There are five classes of immunoglobulins (antibodies) in humans: IgM, IgG, IgE, IgA, and IgD. Most biopharmaceuticals are based on IgG. Antibodies not only recognize and bind to antigens but also direct the process by which the antigens are eliminated or killed.