“Biomedical Waste Management Rules 2016: An Overview with Important MCQs”

“Biomedical Waste Management Rules 2016: An Overview with Important MCQs”

105 Important MCQ of Pharmacy Law and Ethics


Biomedical waste management in India is regulated by the Biomedical Waste Management Rules 2016, which are implemented by the Central Pollution Control Board. The rules require all healthcare facilities, including hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, etc., to properly categorize, store, transport, and dispose of biomedical waste in a safe and environmentally sound manner. This includes the segregation of different types of waste, such as infectious waste, sharps, and chemical waste, and their disposal through methods such as autoclaving, chemical disinfection, and landfilling.

Non-compliance with these rules can result in penalties and fines. To ensure proper implementation, the rules require the appointment of a nodal officer and the formation of a treatment and disposal facility in each state.

Categories of Biomedical Waste

Biomedical Waste Management Rules 2016 categorizes the bio-medical waste generated from the healthcare facility into four categories based on the segregation Pathway and Color code.

Various types of bio medical waste are further assigned to each one of the categories, as detailed below:

–Yellow Category

–Red Category

–White Category

–Blue Category

Types of Biomedical Waste

The World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized biomedical waste into eight categories. They are:

Infectious Waste – Any biomedical waste that is infectious or contaminated.

Sharps – Sharps objects like needles, scalpels, broken glass, and razors.

Pathological Waste – Body parts of humans or animals, including tissues, fluids, or blood.

Pharmaceutical Waste – Unused drugs, medicine, or creams that are expiring.

Genotoxic Waste – Toxic drugs and hazardous toxic waste

Radioactive Waste – Any waste containing potentially radioactive materials

Chemical Waste – Liquid waste from machines, batteries, and disinfectants is chemical.

General/Other Waste – All other non-hazardous waste.

As per Biomedical Waste Management Rules 2016, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPBC) has designated separate color-coded bins to dispose of biomedical wastes as per their nature.

Yellow Bin: For anatomical waste, chemical waste, soiled waste, chemotherapy waste, discarded linen and medicines, and laboratory waste.

Red Bin: For contaminated plastic wastes

Blue Bin: For glass waste and metallic implants

Black Bin: For hazardous and other waste

Biomedical Waste Management Rules 2016
Biomedical Waste Management Rules 2016

Types of Biomedical Waste Disposal

Types of Biomedical Waste Disposal are as follows-

1. Autoclaving

The process of autoclaving involves steam sterilization. Instead of incineration, which can be expensive, autoclaving simply introduces very hot steam for a determined amount of time.

At the end of the process, microorganisms have been completely destroyed. This process is particularly effective because it costs much less than other methods, and doesn’t present any personal health risks.

While some biomedical waste isn’t able to be disposed of via autoclaving, around 90% of materials are sanitized this way before being sent on to a landfill.

2. Incineration

The major benefits of incineration are that it is quick, easy, and simple.

It effectively removes the waste entirely, and safely removes any microorganisms.

However, when burning hazardous materials, emissions can be particularly dangerous. Some states prefer for waste disposal companies to look towards incineration as their first choice, but materials must be reviewed and determined as safe to burn.

3. Chemicals

When it comes to liquid waste, a common biomedical waste disposal method can be chemical disinfection.

Chlorine is a regular choice for this process, and is introduced to the liquid waste in order to kill microorganisms and pathogens.

Chemical disposal can also be used for solid wastes, but it is recommended that they be grinded first to ensure maximum decontamination.

Liquid waste, once decontaminated, is then disposed into the sewer system.

4. Microwaving

During this process, waste is shredded, mixed with water, and then internally heated to kill microorganisms and other harmful elements.

One of the main benefits of this process is the shredding aspect; it lowers the volume of biomedical waste, and it is reportedly more energy efficient to use this method than to incinerate.

While it can’t be used for all biomedical wastes, it can be utilized for a good 90% of it, just like autoclaving.


Biomedical waste means …

(a) waste generated by hospitals
(b) waste generated by nursing
(c) waste generated by clinics
(d) all of above

Which of the following is not a biomedical waste?

(a) Animal waste
(b) Chemical waste
(c) Microbiological waste
(d) Domestic waste

In what category of waste do paint, household cleaners, medical waste, and solvents belong?

(a) Hazardous
(b) Compost
(c) Municipal solid
(d) Industrial

Cytotoxic should be placed in which container?

(a) Yellow Container 
(b) Grey Container
(c) Red Container
(d) Black Container

Which container would anatomical waste go in?

(a) Yellow pail 
(b) Grey Pail 
(c) Red pail
(d) Black pail

Where would you put a scalpel?

(a) Yellow pail 
(b) White pail
(c) Red pail
(d) Sharps container

Where would you put a blood product pack?

(a) Yellow pail
(b) White pail
(c) Red pail
(d) Sharps container

For Glass bottles and broken glass articles which bag is used?

(a) Red bags
(b) White bags
(c) Yellow bags
(d) Blue bags

The simplest and most common method used in the cities is to collect and dump the
waste in a…

(a) Landfill
(b) River
(c) Ocean
(d) All of above

___can be produced from landfill waste

(a) Natural gas
(b) Liquefied petroleum gas
(c) Biogas
(d) Any of the above

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