Answered: Your Most Burning Questions About Type 1 and Type 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes (Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus) is one of the oldest diseases known to man. It is the commonest disorder that affects more than 100 million people around the globe. It includes a group of metabolic disorders in which there is hyperglycemia (increase in blood sugar level). This can be due to impaired insulin secretion by the pancreas, or the body does not respond appropriately to insulin as it should.

Most of the food we eat is broken down into sugar/glucose. When your blood sugar level increases, the pancreatic cells are stimulated to release insulin. Insulin converts sugar i.e. glucose into glycogen and stores it in the liver and muscles to use later for energy requirements. If there is no or less insulin present in the body, excess blood sugar will not be converted into glycogen, and blood sugar levels will continue to increase. That’s what we call ‘Diabetes’.

What are the different types of Diabetes?

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Other specific types: Monogenic Diabetes Mellitus (Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus, MODY Diabetes Mellitus (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young) LADA Diabetes Mellitus (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of the Adult), Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas (Cystic Fibrosis, …) Drug-Induced Diabetes (Glucocorticoids, Antiretrovirals, etc.)

What is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is also known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), this occurs mainly in children and young adults; the onset is usually sudden and can be life-threatening. Therefore, it can also be called juvenile-onset or ketosis-prone diabetes. It is characterized by the destruction of β cells in the pancreas by a cellular mediated autoimmune process leading to complete insulin deficiency.

Patients with Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus will need to take insulin every day to survive. Currently, no one knows how to prevent Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus because of its insidious onset and late recognition.

What are the symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Excessive hunger, excessive thirst, blurred vision, fatigue, frequent urination, dramatic weight loss, rapid breathing, flushed face, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain.

What is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is also known as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. It is the most common form of Diabetes Mellitus. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. It generally results from the interaction between genetic, environmental, and behavioral risk factors. Type II diabetes is having a risk of a child of about 5-10%.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus can be prevented or delayed with healthy lifestyle changes, such as losing weight and eating healthy food.

What are the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Increased hunger, increased thirst, increased urination, blurred vision, tiredness, and sores that are slow to heal.

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What is Gestational Diabetes?

Gestational Diabetes is diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy in women without a previous history of Diabetes Mellitus. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus can damage the health of the fetus. The gestational diabetes mellitus may develop during pregnancy and may disappear after delivery.

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The children born to mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus are at greater risk of obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in later life. It is advisable that a test to diagnose Diabetes Mellitus be used at the first prenatal visit.

It can be prevented by losing weight before pregnancy, eating fruits, vegetables, avoiding sugar-containing food or drinks, and by regular exercising.

What are the causes Gestational Diabetes?

Weight gain during pregnancy, no physical activity, consuming sugar-containing drinks or food.

What is the difference between Type -1 Diabetes Mellitus and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Type -1 Diabetes MellitusType-2 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin Dependent Diabetes MellitusNon-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Causes -Less secretion of insulin due to autoimmune disorder destroying pancreatic cellsCauses – Due to insulin resistance
Symptoms: Excessive hunger, excessive thirst, blurred vision, fatigue, frequent urination, dramatic weight loss, rapid breathing, flushed face, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain.Symptoms: Increased hunger, increased thirst, increased urination, blurred vision, tiredness, sores that are slow to heal.

What are the complications with Diabetes Mellitus?

As Diabetes progresses it leads to severe complications in Diabetes Mellitus like retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular diseases, and ulceration. Type I Diabetes Mellitus patients are more susceptible to the coronary artery, heart, and peripheral vascular diseases. While Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients have a high risk of atherosclerosis associated with hypertension, hyperlipidemia and obesity, and renal diseases.

What are the risk factors of diabetes?

High Blood Pressure, Obesity, and Sedentary lifestyle.

Is Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus genetic?

A diabetic is a complex metabolic disorder that depends on genetic factors and environmental factors. Some genetic defects may lead increase in the sensitiveness of the pancreas to some of the viruses.

Is Diabetes an autoimmune disease?

Yes. Type I Diabetes Mellitus is an autoimmune disorder, in which the body’s own immune system destroys pancreatic cells.  Destruction of pancreatic cells causes less or no secretion of insulin.

Can you die from Diabetes?

No. Unless you follow instructions given by your doctor. Do regular physical activity, keeping a healthy weight, and eat healthily.

What is Diabetic Nephropathy?

Diabetic Nephropathy or diabetic kidney disease is a syndrome characterized by the presence of pathological quantities of urine albumin excretion, diabetic glomerular lesions, and loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetics.

What is Diabetic Retinopathy?

Diabetes will produce its effect on both neuronal and vascular components of the retina. Diabetic Retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication of Diabetes Mellitus and is a leading cause of blindness.

What is World Diabetes Day?

World Diabetes Day is celebrated every November 14th. The theme of World Diabetes Day 2021 is Access to diabetes care.

What are good fruits for Diabetes?

Apples, Avocados, Bananas, Berries, Cherries, Grapefruit, Grapes, Kiwi fruit.

What are foods to avoid in Diabetes?

Fruits having high sugar content (Glycemic Index 70-100) are to be avoided in Diabetes like Dried Dates, Pineapples, Watermelons, etc.

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